Athlete Octane™ The Liquid Endurance Solution


AO New Ingredient Label NSF 7.12
Vitamin E
Functions:
  • Powerful antioxidant
  • Reduces the effects of free radicals (soreness, illness, etc)
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that is an essential nutrient. Dietary sources include polyunsaturated vegetable oils, seeds, nuts, and whole grains. Other sources include avocados, green leafy vegetables, berries, tomatoes, and asparagus. What does it do? Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body. Reducing free-radicals means enhanced recovery form strenuous training. Vital in the production of cellular energy, Vitamin E performs an essential function in cellular respiration of all muscles. Vitamin E plays a role in the processing of glucose. Consistent evidence demonstrates that vitamin E supplementation is extremely safe. A recent clinical trial consisting of a wide variety of subjects consumed doses of vitamin E up to 3,200 I.U. daily for periods of up to two years. No unfavorable side effects were observed (Murray, 1996).
References: Garrison, R & Somer, E. The Nutrition Desk Reference. New Canaan, CN: Keats Publishing, 1995. Hendler, S. The Doctor’s Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990. Janson, M. The Vitamin Revolution. Greenville, NH: Arcadia Press, 1996. Kirschmann, G & J, Nutrition Almanac 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996. Murray, M. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. 2nd ed. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1998. Murray, M. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1996. Recommended Dietary Allowances 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989. Somer, E. The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. Werbach, M. Healing Through Nutrition. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. Werbach, M. Nutritional Influences on Illness. 2nd ed. Tarzana CA: Third Line Press, 1993.
CALCIUM
Functions:
  • Increases time to exhaustion
  • Promote recovery
  • Increase maximum power
  • Avoid deficiencies
Calcium is responsible for heart muscle contractions and regulates nerve function. Calcium can prolong time to exhaustion and increase maximum power. Dr. Michael Colgan states, ” …in order for life to continue, the level of calcium outside your bones has to be maintained within very narrow limits. If your calcium intake is inadequate for even a day, then your body cannibalizes it’s own skeleton to make up the deficit… Over a span of 20 years, numerous studies have found that athletes in a wide variety of sports, have deficient intakes of calcium.”
References:
Colgan, M. Optimum Sports Nutrition. Advanced Research Press, NY, NY; 1993: pp.190-192. Nishiyama T. Effects of calcium on muscular training. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1985;31:545. Richardon JH, Palmenton T, Chenan H. The effect of calcium on muscle fatigue. J sports Med 1980;20:149
MAGNESIUM
Functions:
  • Complements calcium for a 1 to 2 ratio
  • Multiple functions in human metabolism
Dietary Sources: Legumes, whole grains.
Magnesium is responsible for literally hundreds of functions in the human body. It is essential for burning glucose for fuel, muscle contraction and nerve contraction. It is added to Athlete Octane™ to complement calcium in a 1 to 2 ratio.
References
Recommended Dietary Allowances 10th Edition. Washington DC: National Academy press, 1989
VITAMIN B12
Functions:
  • Helps reduce recovery time
  • Responsible for building red-blood cells and muscle tissue
Vitamin B12 (Cyanacobalamin) works closely with Folic Acid to promote new cell formation, cell life and function. The Merck Index states, “This coenzyme [Cyanacobalamin] is the metabolically active form of vitamin B-12.” Most B12 deficiencies occur from poor gastric absorption, but B12 is only available in animal foods, therefore vegetarians are commonly deficient. Oral absorption of Vitamin B12 is poor, as it is mostly destroyed in the digestive process. A sublingual (under-the-tongue) form has shown to be superior for absorption.
References:
Wright, JV. Dr. Wright’s Guide to Healing with Nutrition. Keats Publishing, Inc., New Caanan, CT; 1990: pp.30-44, 135,219, 475-507,533-534. Colgan, M. Optimum Sports Nutrition. Advanced Research Press, NY, NY; 1993: pp.8-18, 177-178, 343-345. Dunne, LJ. Nutrition Almanac, 3rd Edition. Mcgraw-Hill, NY; 1990: pp.31-34, 121-22. Lieberman, S, and Brunig, N. The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. Avery Publishing, Garden City, NY; 1990: pp.97-99. Rector-Page, lLG. Healthy Healing. Healthy Healing Publications, Ninth Edition, 1992: p.18. Balch, JF, and Balch PA. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Avery Publishing, Garden City, NY;1993: pp.7-11.
CHROMIUM POLYNICOTINATE
Functions:
  • Promotes normal insulin function
  • Promotes healthy blood sugar levels
  • Promotes healthy blood lipid (cholesterol) levels
  • Promotes cardiovascular health
  • Promotes lean body mass
  • Promotes healthy weight control.
Chromium helps insulin metabolize fat, turn protein into muscle and convert sugar into energy. Chromium-activated insulin increases the amount of blood sugar available for energy production nearly twenty-fold. ChromeMate® is a unique, patented form of biologically active niacin-bound chromium called chromium nicotinate or polynicotinate that dramatically increases the effectiveness of chromium. Researchers have shown that ChromeMate® with its unique, patented oxygen-coordinated niacin-bound chromium complex is the safest and most potent form of chromium available as a dietary supplement. Chromium is at the heart of a biologically active complex called Glucose Tolerance Factor, or “GTF”, which is responsible for potentiating (increasing) the action of insulin in the body. Insulin is a vital hormone responsible for transporting glucose inside cells and maintaining proper blood sugar and blood lipid (cholesterol) levels in the body.
Reference
For references and further info check: http://www.interhealthusa.com
Coenzyme Q10
Functions:
  • Muscular exhaustion reached at higher workloads
  • Improvement in heart rate recovery after intervals
  • Reduced post-workout soreness
  • Improved overall endurance
  • Improved Vo2 max
  • Powerful antioxidant
Co Q10 is found in almost every cell of the human body. Dietary sources of CoQ10 are found in meats and some protein-rich nuts, but the concentrations are weak at best. It would take 15lbs of peanut butter - or an equally improbable three-and-a-half pounds of sardines – to provide just 100 mg of Q10. This is the amount the University of Washington School of Medicine Physicians’ Update calls “a reasonable daily supplement.” To get optimal amounts of Q10, the enzyme is taken orally.
Coenzyme Q10 is an essential co-factor in the production of ATP, the basic fuel that the body utilizes. Without Q10, we can’t manufacture ATP. Our bodies store enough ATP for about 6-8 minutes of vigorous physical activity. During light exercise or at rest we have the ability to produce enough ATP. Endurance athletes perform high-intensity training over a long period of time are the exception to this rule. Endurance athletes levels of Co Q10 may become chronically low. Supplementation may be the answer. Endurance training and competition exercise is not the only thing that lowers Q10 levels. Age is also a factor in the reduction of this critical nutrient. After age 20, Co Q10 declines gradually. After 50, it plummets.
Beyond endurance
Besides Co Q10’s ability to produce ATP, it is a POWERFUL anti-oxidant. Free radicals (oxidized toxic byproducts of cellular activity and repair) are constantly created by endurance training and racing. Free radicals damage cells unless neutralized by anti-oxidants. Co Q10 has the ability to dramatically lessen the oxidative stress of free radicals. Fewer free radicals means better recovery, health and immunity.
Liquid form is best
CoQ10 is a fat-soluble compound. This means CoQ10 does not dissolve, or absorb unless it is in the presence of a fat. This makes the format of CoQ10 key in determining it’s effectiveness. Many CoQ10 supplements are available in an encapsulated powder format. While this format can result in increased blood serum levels of CoQ10, research has shown that CoQ10 supplied in an oil-base results in dramatically increased absorption by the body.
Dosage
According to experimental studies, dosages vary from 30 to 800 mg/day, while therapeutical dosages range from 75 mg (or 1 mg/kg body weight) to 600 mg (mainly 100-200 mg daily), depending on the existing disease and on the Bioavailability of the formulation. Among athletes, dosages range from 50 to 300 mg/day. In many instances, dosages were employed with the aim of producing whole blood levels greater than or equal to 2.0 µg/ml. Usually taken twice a day, the total dose may also be subdivided into 3-4 administrations or taken as a single dose. Acute, sub-acute and chronic oral toxicity has been determined in mic and rats without lethal or toxic effects. There are no reports of over-dosage of CoQ10 in humans.
References:
Bioavailability of four oral coenzyme Q10 formulations in healthy volunteers: Weis-M; Mortensen-SA; Rassing-MR; Moller-Sonnergaard-J; Poulsen-G; Rasmussen-SN.: Mol-Aspects-Med. 1994; 15 Suppl: s273-80.
L-CARNITINE

Functions:

  • Utilizes fat as fuel
  • Increases maximal aerobic power
  • Increase stamina and endurance

L-Carnitine loading raises the performance of submaximal exercise
Dietary Sources: Red meats are the primary dietary source of L-carnitine. Other animal-based foods containing L-carnitine include fish, poultry, and milk products. Tempeh (fermented soybeans), wheat, and avocados also contain this nutrient.
L-Carnitine is required by the body during physiological stress, exercise, muscular activity, and cold exposure. Supplementing the diet with L-Carnitine increases maximal aerobic power, and promotes glycogen sparing in the course of prolonged heavy exercise. L-Carnitine supplements can increase stamina and endurance, and provide resistance to fatigue. Marathon runners excrete significantly increased amounts of L-Carnitine, in the form of Acetyl-L-Carnitine. This loss in the urine can deplete the pool of L-Carnitine in the body and can prolong recovery. Supplementation of marathon runners with L-Carnitine, in comparison to untreated athletes, raised plasma concentrations. Endogenous levels of L-Carnitine were found to be inadequate to maintain energy linked processes at their optimum efficiency.One of the most important functions of L-Carnitine is the oxidation of long chain fatty acids, a process which takes place inside of mitochondria. L-Carnitine acts as a shuttle molecule, transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation leading to the generation of energy. Skeletal muscle cells, but especially cardiac muscle cells, depend upon this mechanism for the source of metabolic energy. Numerous other functions of L-Carnitine have also been established, such as:
Oxidation of medium chain fatty acids. Oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes. Buffering the bound coenzyme A to free coenzyme A ratio Removing toxic concentrations of acylcoenzyme A. Production of energy from ketone bodies, from pyruvate, from amino acids including branched chain amino acids. Regulating blood ammonia concentrations.
It is very clear that L-Carnitine plays an important role in the production of metabolic energy and that this energy is produced from a variety of different substrates such as long chain fatty acids, medium chain fatty acids, ketone bodies, pyruvate and amino acids. In addition, Professor Peggy R. Borum (University of Florida) has proposed that the function of L-Carnitine is to store metabolic energy and to transport it among cells, and from one organ to another organ. Furthermore, L-Carnitine is involved in the stabilization of cellular membranes, and it may stimulate the human immune system.
References:
Strack E, Rotzsch W, Lorenz I. Biological action of carnitine in animal bodies.
In: Peters H, ed. Protides of the Biological Fluids. New York: Elsevier, 1964:234

ATP

Functions:
  • Immediate boost in energy
  • No stimulants, no energy crash.
Adenosine Triphosphate is the basic fuel used by all cells in the body. The force of all muscle contraction is a result of the chemical conversion of ATP. The body’s store of ATP is very limited and must be constantly manufactured to keep up with energy demand. ATP is manufactured in the body as a result of the Krebs Cycle. Supplying the body with a pure source of ATP results in an immediate and sustained boost of energy that lasts for 20 to 30 minutes without a resulting “crash” or “let-down”. ATP is added to Athlete Octane™ to supply an immediate boost, while the other nutrients in the formula aid in extending endurance and facilitating recovery. Getting ATP into the body is a difficult task with oral supplementation because ATP is mostly, if not completely destroyed in the digestive system. However, a sublingual (under-the-tongue) form of ATP will bypass the digestive system.

TMG (Trimethylglycine or betaine):
Functions:
  • Reduce free radicals to reduce recovery time
  • utilize fatty acids for energy production
  • enhance the transfer of oxygen to muscle tissues.
Dietary sources: fish, beets, and legumes
Trimethylglycine, also known as “Betaine” is an extremely powerful antioxidant. TMG is a “methyl donor”. The donation of methyl groups by betaine is very important to proper liver function, cellular replication, and detoxification reactions. Betaine also plays a role in the manufacture of carnitine and serves to protect the kidneys from damage. TMG helps to transport oxygen to muscle tissues as well as perform liptropic activity (fatty-acid utilization for energy production). Betaine has been reported to play a role in reducing blood levels of homocysteine, a toxic breakdown product of amino-acid metabolism that is believed to hinder recovery. TMG was first isolated from the sugar beet.
References
Selhub J. Homocysteine metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr 1999;19:217–46 [review]. Mindell E, Vitamin Bible, Warner Books, New York, NY;1991:pp.69-71, 146. Barak AJ, Tuma DJ. Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? Life Sci 1983;32:771–4 [review]
OKG (ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate)
Functions:
  • Reduces the breakdown of muscle
  • Produces a release of growth hormone
Dietary Sources: Although the amino acids that comprise OKG are present in protein foods such as meat and poultry and fish, the OKG compound is found only in supplements. The amino acids ornithine and glutamine are combined to form ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG). OKG has been shown to improve protein retention, wound repair, and immune function in hospitalized patients partly by increasing levels of anabolic (growth-promoting) hormones such as insulin and growth hormone.
References: Le Boucher J, Cynober LA. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate: the puzzle. Nutrition 1998;14:870–3 [review]
Vitamin A

Functions:

  • Promotes growth and repair
  • Powerful Antioxidant
  • Reduces the effects of free radical damage

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is an essential nutrient. Dietary sources of vitamin A include but are not limited to egg yolks, fortified milk, sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, broccoli, apricots, and spinach/collard greens.

Vitamin A promotes growth and repair of body tissues, bone formation and healthy skin. Serves as an antioxidant and may help to protect against certain cancers, cataracts and heart disease. It also has antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals in the body that cause tissue and cellular damage.

Vitamin C

Functions:

  • Promotes healthy cell development
  • Resists to some infections
  • Serves as a powerful antioxidant
  • Is needed for the body to absorb iron
  • Strengthens the immune system
  • Reduces the effects of free radical damage
  • Facilitates fat metabolism

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a water soluble vitamin that is an antioxidant super-nutrient is found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. We as humans do not manufacture Vitamin C. Thus we need to ingest our Vitamin C from dietary sources.
Dietary sources of vitamin C can be found in citrus fruits, green peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, white potatoes, and sweet potatoes. Other good sources include dark leafy greens, cantaloupe, papaya, mango, watermelon, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, red peppers, raspberries, blueberries, winter squash, and pineapples.
Vitamin C supports the cardiovascular system by facilitating fat metabolism and protecting tissues from free radical damage. According to The Vitamin C Foundation, it is estimated that vitamin C saved 250,000 to 500,000 or more lives from heart disease in the USA in 1999. It is that important. Vitamin C has also been cited as important for the healthy maintenance of skin and glands.
Selenium

Functions:

  • An essential antioxidant enzyme when used in conjunction with Vitamin E
  • Necessary for normal growth and development
  • Strengthens the immune system

Selenium is a important antioxidant especially in combination with vitamin E. As an antioxidant, selenium protects the body and immune system from oxidative damage by inhibiting harmful free radicals that damage cells
Rich selenium food sources are
· Brazil nuts (one of the most concentrated selenium food sources) · mushrooms (button, shiitake, reishi) · fish (cod, flounder, halibut, herring, mackerel, salmon, smelts, red snapper, swordfish, tuna) · seafood (lobster, oyster, scallops, shellfish, shrimp). Other foods with selenium include · blackstrap molasses · brewer's yeast · butter · cheddar, cottage, and mozzarella cheese · egg · chives, garlic, onions, horseradish · herbs (alfalfa, burdock root, catnip, fennel seed, ginseng, raspberry leaf) · meat (beef, chicken, lamb, turkey) · raisins · sunflower and mustard seeds · vegetables (asparagus, broccoli, radish, spinach) · walnuts · wheat germ · whole grains and wholegrain products (oats, barley, brown rice, rye).
Selenium can be lost when food is processed or refined. For instance, the milling of grains into the refined flour that is used in almost all breads and baked products sold, removes most of its selenium that is located in the bran and germ. Take more whole grains if possible, as refining removes a number of other nutrients as well.

NAC or N Acetyl L Cysteine

Functions:

  • Very Strong Anti Oxidant
  • Free Radical Scavenger
  • Precursor to Glutathione
N Acetyl Cysteine is notable not just as an antioxidant but also as a precursor to the body's "master antioxidant," glutathione, the most important antioxidant in our cells. Glutathione itself cannot be taken as a supplement, by the way, because it breaks down in the digestive tract. Our bodies produce it in great abundance, however. It can become depleted by the frequent
N Acetyl Cysteine is a precursor in the body to the critical antioxidant glutathione, which is produced within cells, particularly by the liver. N Acetyl l cysteine is made from the amino acid cysteine joined to an acetyl group. This nutrient (sometimes abbreviated as N-A-C or NAC) is a strong antioxidant. It donates the amino acid cysteine to help form the antioxidant glutathione. Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant normally found in the body.
N-acetylcysteine is an excellent source of sulfhydryl groups, and is converted in the body into metabolites capable of stimulating glutathione synthesis, promoting detoxification, and acting directly as a free radical scavenger. Administration has historically been as a mucolytic [mucus dissolving] agent in a variety of respiratory illnesses; however, it appears to also have beneficial effects in conditions characterized by decreased glutathione or oxidative stress, such as HIV infection, cancer, heart disease, and cigarette smoking.
Athletics and physical exertion
N acetyl cysteine enhances muscle cysteine and glutathione availability and attenuates fatigue during prolonged exercise in endurance-trained individuals. J Appl Physiol. 2004.
The production of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle is linked with muscle fatigue. This study investigated the effects of the antioxidant compound acetylcysteine on muscle cysteine, cystine and glutathione and on time to fatigue during prolonged, submaximal exercise in endurance athletes. Eight males completed a double-blind, crossover study, receiving acetylcysteine or placebo before and during cycling. Acetylcysteine was intravenously infused for 20 min prior to and throughout exercise. This natural antioxidant improved performance in well-trained individuals, with enhanced muscle cysteine and GSH availability a likely mechanism.
The Swiss researchers evaluated eight studies from five different countries, conducted between 1976 and 1994 on a total of 1408 patients with chronic bronchitis. Five of the studies had found a positive benefit from NAC, whereas three had not. Their duration ranged from two to six months, and the dosages used varied from 600 mg three times per week (equivalent to 257 mg per day, on average) to 600 mg per day. The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that 3 to 6 months of therapy with NAC results in a definite, although not extreme, reduction in the expected number of acute exacerbations of CB and may thus decrease morbidity and health care costs.
References



    D-Ribose

    Functions:

    • Used in the body for energy production (ATP)
    • Needed to strengthen muscles including the heart
    • Assists in recovery from aerobic and aneriobic efforts
    • Increases energy levels
    • Critical for metabolism
    • Helps the heart and Increases stamina and endurance
    • Reduces fatigued muscles maximize energy recovery
    D-Ribose (also known as ribose) is a simple sugar produced in the body that is used by all living cells. It is part of the building blocks that form DNA and RNA molecules, and is one of the crucial ingredients in the production of adenosine tri-phospate (ATP). In a nutshell, it’s called the “energy currency” of all cells. It’s the body’s primary energy-carrying molecule that assists in the conversion of nutrients into usable energy, which enables your body to function. During vigorous exercise or times of stress, large amounts of ATP can be depleted in the heart and skeletal muscles. The problem is your heart, muscles, and other organs and tissues do not make ribose very quickly, and it is not stored in the tissues and cells. Additionally, when your heart and muscles are stressed, ribose levels can be so low that they have a difficult time recovering.
    The good news is that ribose supplementation stimulates energy synthesis, allowing tissues to regenerate energy stores, giving them the boost they need to function efficiently … so that you have the energy you need to do what you want to do, while feeling good.
    Lack of energy is the number one health complaint heard by doctors. The food you eat, the supplements you take, and the amount of exercise and quality of sleep you get all affect your ability to produce energy at the cellular level. But oxidation (free radical production), stress, overwork, and the quality of the air we breathe are some of the biggies that deplete our reserves and energy levels.
    You can also dramatically maximize your D-Ribose energy-boosting benefits by taking it with synergistic nutrients. D-Ribose tends to significantly increase the body's ability to absorb and effectively utilize other nutrients. By taking it with B-vitamins you will maximize the beneficial effects of the vitamins by up to 100%. And the vitamins will dramatically extend the beneficial effects of the D-Ribose throughout the day. Other synergistic nutrients that can be taken with D-Ribose for increased benefits are magnesium (200 mg.) selenium (200 mcg), and vitamin C (500 mg.), to mention but a few.